a police line up held so a witness to an offence can try to identify a suspect among other people of similar appearance.
an exemption from a duty or liability.
a term, not stated in a contract but which must be fulfilled, that services and related goods will be fit for the purpose for which they are supplied.
in place of.
in loco parentis
standing in as temporary guardian of a child.
matters that are not allowed to be used as evidence in a court action.
a not-for-profit community organisation with a separate legal identity and a structure regulated by legislation.
to make up a loss which someone has suffered as a result of the act or default of another.
where, in some cases, the losing party is ordered to pay all of the winning party’s actual legal costs, except those that are of an unreasonable amount or were unreasonably incurred.
a serious crime for which a person will usually be tried by a judge and jury.
information (charge) presented in court for the prosecution of an offence.
a legal document made between registered industrial organisations (e.g. a union and an employer representative body) and approved by an industrial tribunal.
the legal term for a person under 18, used particularly in family law and civil actions.
agreement given for something to be done, after the procedure has been fully explained so that the person understands the procedure, any risks and their rights to agree or refuse.
1. a breach of law, right or obligation; 2. interference with an owner’s exclusive patent, copyright or trademark rights regarding intellectual property.
a court order which either directs someone to do or refrain from doing something; an injunction may be interim (i.e. temporary, until a further order is issued) or permanent.
unable to pay debts in full as and when they fall due.
a contract where one party agrees to cover any financial liability of the other party in specific circumstances, usually in return for payment of a premium.
a contract of insurance.
a set of legal rights protecting creative and intellectual efforts (e.g. copyright and patent).
among other things.
an amount of money that is paid to a lender on top of repayment of the original amount borrowed.
a temporary court order until the court makes a final decision.
a step taken in the course of legal action to assist either party in proceeding with their case by resolving a particular issue such as liability.
to give a benefit to someone else without being requested to or having a legal duty to do so.
written questions put by one party in a civil action to another on relevant points of the dispute prior to the court hearing.
someone who dies without leaving a valid will.
1. children, grandchildren and all linear descendants of a person; 2. a question to be determined by a court.
people who own land together in undivided shares, with a right of survivorship (i.e. on the death of one owner, their interest automatically passes to the surviving owner(s)); the interest cannot be disposed of by will or deed as with tenants in common.
see enforcement debt.
review by a court of an administrative decision on the basis of fault in the decision-making process or on a point of law (compare with merits review).
the authority of a court to decide matters brought before it; also, the geographical limits within which a court order can be enforced.
the science or philosophy of law.
a member of a jury.
a panel of people selected from the general public to decide the guilt or innocence of people tried in
criminal cases or questions of damages in civil cases.